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Zicron

BIRTHSTONE:

Zircon is the birthstone for the month of December, as well as Turquoise and Tanzanite.

ZICRON DEFINITION:

Wide Variety of Zircon Colors
Zircon comes in a wide variety of colors.
Colorless zircon is well known for its brilliance and flashes of multicolored light, called fire. These two zircon properties are close enough to the properties of diamond to account for centuries of confusion between the two gems.

Zircon occurs in an array of colors. Its wide and varied palette of yellow, green, red, reddish brown, and blue hues makes it a favorite among collectors as well as informed consumers.

Zircon crystals grow in many different types of rock and possess a range of optical and physical properties.

Some zircons—usually green ones—display much lower values for these properties than others. Scientists have determined that the crystal structures of these gems were almost completely broken down by radioactive elements—often present in zircon as impurities—that damaged the gems’ crystal structure over long periods of geological time.

Some gemologists classify zircons into three types—high, intermediate, and low. A zircon’s classification depends on its properties, which are directly related to the amount of radiation-induced damage done to its crystal structure.

High or normal zircons have full crystal structures, with little or no damage from radioactive elements. As a result, they have the normal physical and optical properties associated with the mineral.

In intermediate or medium zircons, radioactive elements have caused some structural damage. They have physical and optical properties that are between high and low types.

Extensive crystal-structure damage from radioactive elements results in low zircons with much lower optical and physical properties. In extreme cases, they are practically amorphous, which means they lack an orderly crystal structure.

Virtually all the zircons used in jewelry are of the high type. Interestingly, radiation-induced crystal-structure breakdown can be reversed somewhat by heating zircon to high temperatures. High-temperature heat treatment repairs the stone’s damaged crystal structure.
 
ZICRON QUALITY FACTORS:
Greenish Blue Zircon
Zircon’s typical greenish blue color has been referred to as zircon blue. - Lydia Dyer, gem courtesy of John Dyer & Co.
Zircon is a gemstone that’s not commonly known among jewelry buyers, which is a shame considering the number of beautiful colors it comes in. These include earth tones such as cinnamon, sherry, yellow, orange, and red. Among those who are familiar with this gem, zircon is especially admired for its attractive blue colors.

Various Zircon Colors
Zircon comes in many attractive colors. - GIA & Tino Hammid, courtesy Gordon Bleck
Color
Some zircons display warm autumnal earth tones such as yellowish and reddish brown, inspiring fashion trends. Red and green zircons have market value as collectors’ stones, and cat’s-eye zircons occasionally appear on the market. There are also colorless zircons.

Zircon Ring
Zircon can display earthy colors such as yellow, orange, and brown. - Courtesy Richard Krementz Gemstones
12.84-carat Triangular-cut Zircon
This 12.84-carat triangular-cut zircon displays an attractive orange hue. - John Dyer, Zircon Super Trillion courtesy of John Dyer & Co.
Colorless Zircon
One of the most brilliant non-diamond gems, colorless zircon was widely used as a lower-cost diamond alternative in the nineteenth century. 
Although collectors clearly love zircon’s color variety, consumers seem most enamored of just one hue: blue. Gem dealer reports indicate that at least 80 percent of zircons sold are blue.

Because they’re in greater demand, blue zircons usually command higher prices than any of the other varieties. Even though gem buyers can satisfy their demand for blue gems with top-grade topaz at significantly lower cost, blue zircon continues to sell well. Industry analysts believe that blue zircon has yet to reach its full market potential.

Intense Blue Zircon
Intense blue color in zircon is usually the result of heat treatment. 
Zircon’s blue, almost always the result of heat treatment, comes in a range that includes very slightly greenish blue, greenish blue, and very strongly greenish blue.

Clarity
Zircons are relatively free of inclusions, but many untreated zircons have a cloudy or smoky appearance. If it’s extreme, it can be a negative factor with buyers. In Victorian times, this smokiness made zircon a popular gem for mourning jewelry.

Emerald-cut Blue Zircon
Most faceted zircon on the market is free of eye-visible inclusions. - Courtesy Pala International
Today, most zircon that is faceted for use in jewelry is free of inclusions that are visible to the eye. Eye-visible inclusions cause a drop in zircon value.

Rarely, zircon might contain long parallel inclusions that create the cat’s-eye effect when the stone is cut as a cabochon.

Cat’s-eye Zircon
Occasionally, long parallel inclusions in zircon will create the cat’s-eye effect when it is cut as a cabochon. - GIA & Tino Hammid, courtesy Gordon Bleck
Cut
It’s a challenge to cut zircon because the gem is brittle. Cutters usually fashion zircon in the brilliant style to take advantage of its luster and fire. A modification of the brilliant cut, known as the “zircon cut,” uses eight extra facets around the gem’s lower portion, called the pavilion. This isn’t seen very often today because of the extra labor costs involved. Zircon can also be found in step cuts, which have rows of parallel facets, and mixed cuts, which are a combination of brilliant and step-cut facets.

Zircon Round Brilliant
Round-brilliant cut zircons often have an extra set of eight facets at the base of the stone. 
Carat Weight
The supply of zircon is generally limited, and typical sizes depend on color. Blue or green stones normally range from 1 carat to 10 carats and yellows and oranges up to around 5 carats. Reds and purples are usually smaller.

Zircon Round Brilliant
Zircon is available in a wide range of sizes, but blue stones as large as this 28.15-carat example are rare.
 
ALL CONTENT IS FROM:"Zicron." GIA. N.p., n.d. Web.
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